The notion of a limpieza (cleansing) formed an essential part of the rebel strategy, and the process began immediately after an area had been captured. Scholars who focus on killings or "violent deaths" most typically list (1) combat and combat-related deaths; figures in this rubric range from 100,000 to 700,000; (2) rearguard terror, both judicial and extrajudicial, recorded until the end of the Civil War: 103,000 to 235,000; (3) civilian deaths from military action, typically air raids: 10,000 to 15,000. Unlike Hitler and Mussolini, Stalin tried to do this covertly.  The Italian air force conducted a particularly heavy bombing raid on Barcelona in early 1938. , The conservative, strongly Catholic Basque country, along with Catholic Galicia and the more left-leaning Catalonia, sought autonomy or independence from the central government of Madrid. The Francoist troops launched an offensive and recovered the city by 22 February, but Franco was forced to rely heavily on German and Italian air support. "A Spanish genocide?  Two days after relieving the siege, Franco proclaimed himself Caudillo ("chieftain", the Spanish equivalent of the Italian Duce and the German Führer—meaning: 'director') while forcibly unifying the various and diverse Falangist, Royalist and other elements within the Nationalist cause. , Shortly after the Popular Front's election victory, various groups of officers, both active and retired, got together to begin discussing the prospect of a coup.  The Spanish historian Salvador de Madariaga, an Azaña supporter and an exiled vocal opponent of Francisco Franco, wrote a sharp criticism of the left's participation in the revolt: “The uprising of 1934 is unforgivable. Officers supporting the coup tended to be africanistas (men who fought in North Africa between 1909 and 1923) while those who stayed loyal tended to be peninsulares (men who stayed back in Spain during this period). The first three months of the war were the bloodiest, with 50 to 70 percent of all executions carried out by Franco's regime, from 1936 to 1975, occurring during this period. By Giulia Maria Medas.  Air raids committed against Republican cities were another driving factor.  Franco's forces were determined to remove the "Protestant heresy" from Spain.  Franco won another victory on 27 September when his troops relieved the siege of the Alcázar in Toledo, which had been held by a Nationalist garrison under Colonel José Moscardó Ituarte since the beginning of the rebellion, resisting thousands of Republican troops, who completely surrounded the isolated building. , The Estado Novo regime of Portuguese Prime Minister António de Oliveira Salazar played an important role in supplying Franco's forces with ammunition and logistical help. Moroccans and elements of the Spanish Legion came to the rescue. Maddison Angus. Resource Information. , The rebels failed to take any major cities with the critical exception of Seville, which provided a landing point for Franco's African troops, and the primarily conservative and Catholic areas of Old Castile and León, which fell quickly. GUERRA civile spagnola. Thus they fared poorly in combat, particularly against the professional Army of Africa armed with modern weapons, ultimately contributing to Franco's rapid advance. Lotto 6123. The Spanish Civil War: A Military History. La guerra civile spagnola : 1936-1939. After the War, the Francoist regime initiated a repressive process against the losing side, a "cleansing" of sorts against anything or anyone associated with the Republic.  Azaña was in Barcelona that day, and the Lerroux-CEDA government tried to implicate him. Produced by both nationalists and republicans, propaganda allowed Spaniards a way to spread awareness about their war all over the world. Consequently, the Nationalists called Lisbon "the port of Castile". 8 years ago. The United States unofficially adopted a position of non-intervention as well, despite abstaining from joining the alliance (due in part to its policy political isolation). As many strikes occurred between April and July as had occurred in the entirety of 1931. highest considered estimate, Tusell, Javier (1998). The number of civilian victims is still being discussed, with some estimating approximately 500,000 victims, while others go as high as 1,000,000. 1.2K likes. "muertos a causa de la Guerra", includes victims of post-war terror. 3 Answers. "The Roman salute characteristic of Italian fascism was first adopted by the PNE and the JONS, later spreading to the Falange and other extreme right groups, before it became the official salute in Franco's Spain. MBC. In the thirty-six hours following the election, sixteen people were killed (mostly by police officers attempting to maintain order or to intervene in violent clashes) and thirty-nine were seriously injured. GUERRA CIVILE SPAGNOLA (It) GUERRA CIVILE SPAGNOLA. In 1944, a group of republican veterans, who also fought in the French resistance against the Nazis, invaded the Val d'Aran in northwest Catalonia, but were defeated after 10 days. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. 200,000 KIA, 200,000 executed, 20,000 executed after the war, excluding "unknown numbers" of civilians killed in military action and "many more" died of malnutrition etc., Preston, Paul (2012).  Others died in acts of revenge after Republicans heard of massacres carried out in the Nationalist zone. According to Seidman, the Republican government only made efforts to stop the actions of the paseos late in the war; during the first few months, the government either tolerated it or made no efforts to stop it. At November's end, with Franco's troops closing in on Valencia, the government had to move again, this time to Barcelona. , In 2008 a Spanish judge, Baltasar Garzón, opened an investigation into the executions and disappearances of 114,266 people between 17 July 1936 and December 1951. Virtually all Nationalist groups had very strong Roman Catholic convictions and supported the native Spanish clergy. AU - Cardillo, Angelo. REVISTA DE ESTUDIOS POLITICOS 177 (2017): 147–179.  Some monarchists joined with the then fascist-nationalist Falange Española y de las JONS ("Falange") to help achieve their aims. Asociación Cultural Memoria de España. , Fearing it might spark a civil war inside France, the leftist "Popular Front" government in France did not send direct support to the Republicans.  Later, Franco spoke of Salazar in glowing terms in an interview in the Le Figaro newspaper: "The most complete statesman, the one most worthy of respect, that I have known is Salazar.  Those associated with the losing Republicans who stayed were persecuted by the victorious Nationalists.  Many rifles and field guns provided were old, obsolete or otherwise of limited use (some dated back to the 1860s) but the T-26 and BT-5 tanks were modern and effective in combat. Following the war, wide swathes of Spanish society, including the armed forces, united in hopes of removing the corrupt central government, but were unsuccessful. [note 59], Death totals remain debated. Therefore, he limited his aid, and instead encouraged Benito Mussolini to send in large Italian units. 80 likes. , The Spanish Civil War exposed political divisions across Europe. Workers increasingly demanded less work and more pay.  Elections in June 1931 returned a large majority of Republicans and Socialists. Basque nationalists, heralded by the conservative Basque Nationalist Party, were mildly supportive of the Republican government, although some in Navarre sided with the uprising for the same reasons influencing conservative Catalans. The Munich Agreement effectively caused a collapse in Republican morale by ending hope of an anti-fascist alliance with Western powers. Amado Granell.jpg 295 × 446; 14 KB. Financing the war posed enormous challenge for both the Nationalists and the Republicans. Comments are disabled. , The political and emotional repercussions of the War transcended the national scale, becoming a precursor to the Second World War. According to Stanley Payne, by July 1936, the situation in Spain had deteriorated massively. [note 7] For the Nationalists it was mostly the Italian and German credit;[note 8] in case of the Republicans it was sales of gold reserves, mostly to the USSR and in much smaller amount to France. "Social crimes" – refusing to pay for goods and rent – became increasingly common by workers, particularly in Madrid.  The rebellion was crushed in two weeks by the Spanish Navy and the Spanish Republican Army, the latter using mainly Moorish colonial troops from Spanish Morocco. ", On 8 September 1936, a naval revolt took place in Lisbon. The rebels tended to draw from less senior officers.  Refugees were confined in internment camps of the French Third Republic, such as Camp Gurs or Camp Vernet, where 12,000 Republicans were housed in squalid conditions. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. Italiano: La Guerra civile spagnola (17 luglio 1936 - 1 aprile 1939) è considerata come la prova generale della Seconda Guerra Mondiale.  Manuel Azaña Díaz was called to form a government before the electoral process had ended.  The disenchantment with Azaña's rulling was also voiced by Miguel de Unamuno, a republican and one of Spain's most respected intellectuals who, in June 1936, told a reporter who published his statement in El Adelanto that President Manuel Azaña should commit suicide as a patriotic act”.. By the end of the war the Lincoln Battalion had lost 22.5% of its strength. Essa servì da esercitazione per le forze dell'Asse, e fu teatro di scontro tra le principali ideologie politiche che esistevano allora in Europa: il fascismo, la democrazia liberale e i vari movimenti rivoluzionari (socialisti, comunisti e anarchici). The revolutionary left-wing masses took to the streets and freed prisoners. Guerra civil española 1. Abstract. Visualizzazione post con etichetta guerra civile spagnola.  Republicans were supported by urban workers, agricultural labourers, and parts of the middle class. Media in category "People associated with the Spanish Civil War" The following 45 files are in this category, out of 45 total. , In November 1933, the right-wing parties won the general election. Indice. la guerra civile spagnola cominció nel 1936. e duró fino al 1939 (12 April) Municipal elections, King Alfonso XIII abdicates. Seidman argues that severe terror, combined with control of the food supply, explains the general lack of guerilla warfare in the Nationalist rear. Some scholars consider that election rigged. University of Wisconsin Pres, 2011, pp.89–90, Casanova, Julián. Cambridge University Press, 2017. pp. ), Assault Guard Captain Fernando Condés was a close personal friend of Castillo.  In the Republican zone fiscal revenues in 1937 dropped to some 25% of revenues recorded in the proportional area in 1935, but recovered slightly in 1938. (ISBN: 9788815247438) from Amazon's Book Store. including 285,000 KIA, 125,000 civilians "due to war directed causes", 200,000 malnutrition., Sandler, Stanley (2002).  This revolution was opposed by the Soviet-supported communists who, perhaps surprisingly, campaigned against the loss of civil property rights.
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